Autopsy and Case Reports
Autopsy and Case Reports
Clinical Case Report

A great simulator in clinical practice: mononeuritis multiplex in HIV infection

José Pedro Soares Baima; Beatriz Carneiro Gondim Silva; Vanessa Lopes Vieira; Luiz Pedro Meireles; Milton Hideaki Arai; Angelina Maria Martins Lino

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HIV infection is a chameleon, mimicking several diseases. Herein, we report a previously healthy 39-year-old woman who, over 2 months, developed arthritis, weight loss, and confluent multiple mononeuropathy. Extensive laboratory investigation showed positive serology for HIV, with a CD4 count of 100 cells, and necrotizing vasculitis on a nerve biopsy not associated with CMV co-infection, allowing the diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa-like vasculitis in an HIV-infected patient. Apart from the infection, HIV-related autoimmunity can affect any organ and contribute to the complexity of the clinical presentation of HIV infection.


Biopsy, HIV, Mononeuropathies, Vasculitis


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