Autopsy and Case Reports
Autopsy and Case Reports
Autopsy Case Report and Review

Gestational gigantomastia with fatal outcome

Natalia Rakislova; Lucilia Lovane; Fabiola Fernandes; Emília Gonçalves; Quique Bassat; Sibone Mocumbi; Jaume Ordi; Carla Carrilho

Downloads: 10
Views: 1685


ABSTRACT: Gigantomastia is a rare disease defined by an extreme and rapid enlargement of the breast, generally bilateral. The majority of cases are reported in pregnant women. Ninety-eight cases of gestational gigantomastia have been identified in electronic databases, and those with fatal outcomes comprised only 2 cases (2%). Despite its benign nature, it can lead to severe complications and even death. Its etiology has not been fully elucidated, but it has been speculated that a hormonal component may play a role in the pathogenesis. Currently, treatment options are limited, and surgery is gaining importance, but it is often not feasible in low-resource settings. Herein, we describe a case of a 30-year-old HIV-positive female with no relevant past medical history, who died due to the complications of gestational gigantomastia at the Maputo Central Hospital, in Mozambique.


Gigantomastia, Breast Diseases, Pregnancy, Pregnancy Complications, HIV


1 Mangla M, Singla D. Gestational gigantomastia: a systematic review of case reports. J Midlife Health. 2017;8(1):40-4. PMid:28458479.

2 Cai X, Wardlaw T, Brown DW. Global trends in exclusive breastfeeding. Int Breastfeed J. 2012;7(1):12. PMid:23020813.

3 Dafydd H, Roehl KR, Phillips LG, Dancey A, Peart F, Shokrollahi K. Redefining gigantomastia. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2011;64(2):160-3. PMid:20965141.

4 Lacerna M, Spears J, Mitra A, et al. Avoiding free nipple grafts during reduction mammaplasty in patients with gigantomastia. Ann Plast Surg. 2005;55(1):21-4, discussion 24. PMid:15985786.

5 Dancey A, Khan M, Dawson J, Peart F. Gigantomastia--a classification and review of the literature. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2008;61(5):493-502. PMid:18054304.

6 Antevski BM, Smilevski DA, Stojovski MZ, Filipovski VA, Banev SG. Extreme gigantomastia in pregnancy: case report and review of literature. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2007;275(2):149-53. PMid:16770587.

7 Lafreniere R, Temple W, Ketcham A. Gestational macromastia. Am J Surg. 1984;148(3):413-8. PMid:6476236.

8 Lewison EF, Jones GS, Trimble FH, Lima LC. Gigantomastia complicating pregnancy. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1960;110:215-23.

9 Ibrahim A, Enesi P, Abur P, Oguntayo A, Garba E. Bilateral gestational gigantomastia complicated by severe sepsis; case report of a preventable mortality. Niger J Surg Res. 2013;15(1):29-29.

10 Roland SO, Cyprien Z, Damien K, et al. The place of reductive surgery in the management of gestational ulcerative gigantomastia: a case report at Sourô Sanou Teaching Hospital. Case Rep Surg. 2019;2019:7946240. PMid:31236302.

11 Diallo AC, Ba MB. A case of bilateral gestational gigantomastia. Pan Afr Med J. 2019;32:50. PMid:31143355.

12 Vidaeff AC, Ross PJ, Livingston CK, Parks DH. Gigantomastia complicating mirror syndrome in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;101(5 Pt 2):1139-42. PMid:12738130.

13 Boyce SW, Hoffman PG Jr, Mathes SJ. Recurrent Macromastia after Subcutaneous Mastectomy. Ann Plast Surg. 1984;13(6):511-8. PMid:6240959.

14 Touraine P, Youssef N, Alyanakian MA, et al. Breast inflammatory gigantomastia in a context of immune-mediated diseases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90(9):5287-94. PMid:15972574.

15 Zingaretti N, Biasio FD, Riccio M, Nardini N, Mariuzzi L, Parodi PC. A case of gestational gigantomastia in a 37-years-old woman associated with elevated ANA: a casual linkage? Pan Afr Med J. 2017;27:167. PMid:28904695.

16 Le EN, McGirt LY, Abuav R. Gigantomastia and autoimmunity: a case report. Lupus. 2009;18(11):1015-8. PMid:19762405.

17 Rezai S, Nakagawa JT, Tedesco J, et al. Gestational gigantomastia complicating pregnancy: a case report and review of the literature. Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2015;2015:892369. PMid:26713166.

18 Reis PE, Santos NQB, Pagio FAB, Chambô F, Chambô D, Chambô A Fo. Management and follow-up of a case of gestational gigantomastia in a brazilian hospital. Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2014;2014:610363. PMid:25215252.

19 Talghini S. Is macromastia a risk factor for breast cancer? A study on 198 patients. Pak J Biol Sci. 2013;16(21):1348-52. PMid:24511745.

20 Windom KW, McDuffie RS Jr. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma presenting with gigantomastia in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 1999;93(5 Pt 2):852. PMid:10912428.

21 Lapid O. Breast reconstruction after mastectomy for gestational gigantomastia. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2013;37(2):388-91. PMid:23354767.

22 Swelstad MR, Swelstad BB, Rao VK, Gutowski KA. Management of gestational gigantomastia. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;118(4):840-8. PMid:16980844.

23 Qin F, Si L, Zhang H, et al. Management of gestational gigantomastia with breast reconstruction after mastectomy: case report and literature review. J Int Med Res. 2020;48(6):030006052092046. PMid:32529879.

24 Ezem BU, Osuagwu CC, Opara KA. Gestational gigantomastia with complete resolution in a Nigerian woman. BMJ Case Rep. 2011;2011:bcr0120102632. PMid:22707463.

25 El Boghdadly S, Pitkanen J, Hassonah M, Al Saghier M. Emergency mastectomy in gigantomastia of pregnancy: a case report and literature review. Ann Saudi Med. 1997;17(2):220-2. PMid:17377434.

26 Long Q, Madede T, Parkkali S, Chavane L, Sundby J, Hemminki E. Maternity care system in Maputo, Mozambique: plans and practice? Cogent Med. 2017;4(1).

27 Chapman RR. Endangering safe motherhood in Mozambique: prenatal care as pregnancy risk. Soc Sci Med. 2003;57(2):355-74. PMid:12765714.

28 Laurenzi CA, Skeen S, Coetzee BJ, Gordon S, Notholi V, Tomlinson M. How do pregnant women and new mothers navigate and respond to challenges in accessing health care? Perspectives from rural South Africa. Soc Sci Med. 2020;258:113100. PMid:32534304.

29 Zaĭrat’iants OV. Gigantomastia in pregnancy developing in a case of status thymicolymphaticus. Arkh Patol. 1984;46(9):87-91. PMid:6508579.

30 Singh S, Mishra AK, Tewari S, Kumar S. Bilateral axillary masses mimicking as accessory breast with multiple fibroadenoma and bilateral gigantomastia in HIV-positive patient. BMJ Case Rep. 2013;2013:bcr2013008563. PMid:23813993.

31 AVERT. Global HIV and AIDS statistics. Reino Unido: Avert; 2018 [cited 2020 Apr 12]. Available from:

Submitted date:

Accepted date:

Publication date:

5fb81b310e8825110c093a73 autopsy Articles
Links & Downloads

Autops Case Rep

Share this page
Page Sections