There are no apparent differences between the symptoms arising from primary and secondary ovarian malignancies. Krukenberg tumors remain asymptomatic until very advanced. In some cases, the features are non-specific, like abdominal pain, weight loss, and increasing abdominal girth.
Mechanisms of the spread of Krukenberg tumor proposed are retrograde lymphatic dissemination involved in gastric cancer metastases, hematogenous spread most frequent in colorectal cancer, and transperitoneal direct spread.
Radiologically, Krukenberg tumors appear as complex semisolid masses with varying proportions of solid and cystic components.
Grossly, Krukenberg tumors are asymmetrically enlarged with bosselated contour.
Krukenberg tumor must be differentiated from ovarian tumors showing signet-ring cells morphology and filled with either mucinous or non-mucinous material.
The various unfavorable prognostic factors in Krukenberg tumors include peritoneal involvement, synchronous presentation, ascites, and increased serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels.
Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed an ulcer measuring 2 cm in diameter in the greater curvature, a biopsy from which confirmed a diagnosis of signet ring cell carcinoma. Thus, a final diagnosis of the Krukenberg tumor was made.
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Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol.
Cancer, krukenberg tumor.
Adv Reprod Sci.